Sanary-sur-Mer | German writers in exile, 1930s

 Jean Puy, Market in Sanary-Sur-Mer, 1925

With the rise of Nazism in the early 1930s, a great number of German writers and intellectuals left 
Germany and settled in Sanary-sur-MerThe playwright Bertolt Brecht, Egon Erwin Kisch, Thomas Mann, 
Ludwig Marcuse, Joseph Roth, Franz Werfel and his wife Alma Mahler widow of Gustav Mahler at Le Moulin 
Gris, Lion Feuchtwanger at Villa Lazare then at Villa Valmer, and Arnold Zweig. Patronised by Jean Cocteau and 
his coterie, Sanary had already drawn Aldous Huxley, who wrote Brave New World at Villa Huley, and his wife, 
Maria; they attracted other English visitors, such as D. H. Lawrence and his wife, Frieda; Julian Huxley and his wife, 
Juliette; and others. The German expatriates clustered around Thomas Mann and his large family, his brother 
Heinrich and his wife (the model for Blue Angel), the writers Stefan Zweig and Arnold Zweig, the art critic Julius 
Meier-Graefe, and the artist René Schickele. Sybille von Schoenebeck (later, as Sybille Bedford, the author of A Legacy) 
lived here with her mother. Artists such as Moise Kisling and Picasso were also in residence and Kiki de Montparnasse 
muse to Man Ray and many other artists also lived here.

Gen Paul, Sanary, 1939


''We lived in paradise, against our will.''

Ludwig Marcuse, Mein Zwanzigstes Jahrhundert, 1960


"If one lives in exile, the café becomes at once the family home, the nation, church and parliament, 
a desert and a place of pilgrimage, cradle of illusions and their cemetery... In exile, the café is the one 
place where life goes on."

Hermann Kesten


With the declaration of war in 1939, the French government treated these exiles as enemy aliens and interned some of them in camps
 like the concentration Camp des Milles near Aix-en-Provence, and eventually some were sent to Auschwitz.


Gen Paul, A beach scene in south of France, Sanary sur Mer, 1935
Moise Kisling and his sons on the beach
Moise Kisling, Sanary, 1937
Rudolf Levy, Sanary-sur-Mer, 1924
Thomas Mann in Sanary-sur-Mer, 1933
Moïse Kisling, Le Port de Sanary, 1923
In the Huxley's garden: Aldous Huxley, Sybille Bedford, Gerald Heard, Eddy Sackville-West, Eva Herrmann1930's

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